Buildings & Settlements: past and present
The history of our roads, water supply and railway now appears on its own page,
as does information on The Old School.
The Domesday Book
Water Stratford's population is shown as eighteen households, which is considered medium relative to other places at the time, but the total tax assessed was 8 gold units which is very large compared to other places. The households were headed by 10 villagers. 5 smallholders and 3 slaves. The village's
value to its lord was £7 and there was land for 8 ploughlands (3 lord's plough teams and 5 men's plough teams), plus meadowland, 6 ploughs, and a mill.

People mentioned in relation to the village are: 'Alric; Alwig, man of Alwine Varus; Azur son of Toti; Beorhtric, thegn of King Edward; Doding, man of Esger the staller; Ealdraed, man of Earl Morcar; Edmund, thegn of King Edward; Esger the staller; Fin the Dane; Geoffrey de Mandeville; Germund; Gilbert de Ghent; Miles Crispin; Osbert; Queen Edith; Ralph; Ralph Basset; Robert; Robert Gernon; Robert d'Oilly; Roger; Swaerting; Swaerting, man of Esger the staller; Swein, man of Esger the staller; Turstin; Ulf, man of Esger the staller; Ulf, thegn of King Edward; William de Keynes.'  Clearly many of these were higher authorities but some must have been village inhabitants.
The Manor
If any building still standing in the village was ever home to the 'Lords of the Manor' then this house, the most northerly within the village curtilage, is the only contender.  It bears a date stone inscribed 1598 (probably the year of its completion, as the sale document of 1919 gives a date of 1578) and the upper flight of the staircase has early 17th century pierced balusters.  It was much altered in 1669 and parts of the building are much more recent.  The date of 1598 means that it was built, and perhaps lived in, by Anthony Frankish (1540-1615) who was Lord of the Manor at that time.  His eleventh child and fourth son, Edward, was christened in Water Stratford on 17th September 1598.
However, the present farmhouse for Manor Farm was built on open land in 1971 and this, together with the evidence of the censuses, makes it clear that for most of its existence this building served as the farmhouse for Manor House Farm.  The change of name to The Manor presumably reflected the fact that after 1971 it no longer had any connection with the farm.
The censuses show that the farm was around 300 acres.  It was farmed by tenants: Thomas Tomes in 1911 and William Townsend in 1901 and 1891, but much of its history is bound up with the Lines family.  Benjamin1 Lines married Rebecca Hinton in Water Stratford in 1768 and their eldest son, Edward, was born here in 1770.  Edward and his wife Ann had eleven children in the village between 1798 and 1814 but he died in 1839 and the occupants of the farm at the time of the first census in 1841 were three of his children, Benjamin2, John and Sarah.  John had moved to another village by 1851 but it was his son, Benjamin3 Augustus, who took over the farm after his uncle Benjamin2 died in 1865.  His aunt Sarah never married and remained on the farm all her life, dying there in 1875 and being buried in the same expensive tomb as her brother Benjamin2, but farming tended to become much less profitable towards the end of the century and it seems likely that Manor House Farm couldn't support Benjamin3 Augustus, his wife and seven children.  In 1901 and 1911 he was driving a horse-drawn tram in Hackney, and he died in West Ham in 1923.
At the sale of 1919 Thomas Tomes bought the freehold to 263 acres for £5,000 but he died in 1928 and Buckinghamshire County Council became the new owner.  In 1936 the north-eastern 138 acres of the farm were bought by a private farmer and named Spinney Hill Farm, while BCC kept the rest.  In 1971 it sold the house to a private owner and built a new farmhouse for what was now called Manor Farm.
The Old Rectory
The Rectory was built by 1639 for Samuel Marshall, Vicar from 1627 to 1642, so was relatively new when Revd John Mason became Rector in 1674.  The upstairs window from which it is thought he addressed his followers at the end of his life is still there.  This house was thatched but the rectory was almost doubled in size in 1819 with the addition of a new, slate-roofed, South wing.  This followed the arrival of Revd Woolley Leigh Bennett and his young family (four children when he was appointed and three more born here).  Renovation took place in 1834, still in Bennett's time, and in 1878 Revd Edward George Andrew had much of the original building rebuilt.  Presumably the remaining thatch was replaced with slate on one of these dates.
The building was occupied by Rectors until the outbreak of war in 1939 when Revd Leslie Buttle left to be Assistant Chaplain of Felsted School and a chaplain in the RNVR (he died in 2009, aged 101).  It was used for evacuees during the war and they included enough children to necessitate reopening the village school, which had closed in the early 1930s.  After the war it was sold and became a private house.
Town Farm
Town Farm was built in the 17th Century but only one gable end is left from the original, as most was destroyed by fire and rebuilt early in 1919.  Just as the history of Manor Farm revolves around the Lines family, so Town Farm is tied to the Morris and Hilsdon families.  The censuses show that from at least 1841 to 1883, Joseph Morris (1780-1856) and then his bachelor sons John (1803-83) and Thomas (1805-63) were tenant farmers of around 140 acres.  As Joseph was born in the village, it seems likely that his father John Morris farmed here before him. 
In 1891 Ernest P Smith is shown as a farm manager but around 1896 William Hilsdon arrived from the Brill area of Buckinghamshire and he and his descendants were farmers here for the next hundred years.  William was a tenant but his son Henry bought the freehold to 167 acres for £5,000 at the great auction of 1919.  In 1998 the farmhouse became a private house and new houses were built on parts of the farmyard but branches of the Hilsdon family still farm in Water Stratford and surrounding parishes.
Water Stratford House and the Trumpet Clock
The Trumpet Clock is a notable folk memory in Water Stratford and neighbouring Finmere.  Its story starts with the Clark family who were minor gentry, originally from Chetwode Priory but tenants of Finmere House from 1830 until about 1894.  Dr James Clark (1796-1873) and his brother Charles (1800-78) were both GPs but appear to have practised very little and are probably better thought of as educated gentlemen experimenters and philanthropists.  They did a great deal for Finmere and nearby villages and were particularly interested in clocks, reputedly giving the church clocks in both Finmere and Barton Hartshorn, the latter village being where they are buried.  The Finmere local history site has pictures and more information concerning the Clark brothers.
James and his two sisters (who also lived at Finmere House) died unmarried but Charles' marital situation was most unusual: he married and had two daughters by a local maid, Eliza Ford, but they did not live with him and she falsely described herself as a widow in the 1861 and 1871 censuses when she was living in lodgings.  But by 1881 Eliza was mistress of Finmere House: James, Charles and their elder sister were dead and the younger sister had moved away.  Presumably either James or the elder sister (both older than Charles) had refused to receive Charles' low-born wife and only their deaths in 1872/3 allowed Eliza to move into her husband's house.
James Parke Sikes (1817-68) was a gentleman farmer of 400 acres at Tilton on the Hill in Leicestershire.  Aged 44 he took a young wife, Harriett Needham (1841-1903), by whom he had five children, the eldest being John and James.  He died seven years after the marriage and Harriett soon married a Scottish youth 10 years her junior.  They embarked on a nomadic life through the English midlands and in 1881 were at Shelswell, a hamlet close to Finmere.  It seems probable that while there she would have made the acquaintance of the newly widowed Eliza Clark and may well have introduced her to her eldest son, John Sikes (1862-1926).
Local folklore says the Trumpet Clock was built by John Sikes for the Clark brothers but this is clearly untrue: he was only 16 when Charles Clark died in 1878 and still an apprentice in Leicestershire in 1881.  He must have been employed by Eliza Clark to complete or mend an existing clock.  But the connection didn't end there, as he married her younger daughter Elizabeth Clementina (1868-1939), soon after the birth of their first child, John Edgar Boyfield Sikes.  Eliza died in 1892 and the Sikes family and the clock moved to Water Stratford House in 1894/5.  This house is believed to have been started in 1699 and extended in the 1800s, but recent re-pointing revealed that one gable is about 350 years old and the other about 300.  The bricks used are thought to have been produced at a Water Stratford brickworks near the river that existed before WWI.

The Trumpet Clock had four trumpets which sounded the hours and eighteen bells to chime the quarters.  It is believed that the trumpets could be heard at a distance of five or more miles and could be used to summon Dr Clark if needed.  John Sikes is also thought to have built the clock at Stowe House, now Stowe School, for the birthday of Lady Kinloss.  He had seven children by Elizabeth and the sonorous name of his first son was eclipsed by some of his later offspring: his second son was Thomas Hazlerigge Hastings Sikes and his second daughter Winifred Martinall Saddington Basildon Sikes.

In 1918, John’s eldest daughter, Clementina Gwendoline Sikes (1890-1972), married her first cousin, Robert Gordon Sikes, who is listed on the Water Stratford war memorial.  He was born in 1888 in Leicestershire, the son of James, the younger brother of John Sikes of Water Stratford House.  Clementina was living in Water Stratford when Robert died and had a son, also Robert Gordon, in September 1919.  She continued to live in the village until her death.  All John Sikes' family had nicknames: in her youth she was Boff, a good cricketer who coached the Water Stratford lads, and in later years was Granny Sikes, a stalwart of the church, playing the organ and taking the collection.  She was her father's executor and in 1949 is believed to have contested the ownership of Water Stratford House with her eldest brother's widow in the High Court. The matter was finally resolved with the sale of the house out of the Sikes family in the 1950s.  The new owner of the house dismantled the clock and suggested it should be installed in Buckingham Town Hall but this never happened and the clock is back in his family's possession.  It weighs a ton and needs very expensive expert renovation, so the chances of it returning to Water Stratford are not good.
Danna Cottage
This was a small thatched cottage which stood right on the roadside between Manor Barn and Water Stratford House.  It was of timber-frame panel construction, the panels being filled with soft red brick in a herringbone pattern, and is thought to have dated from the Tudor period, thus being one of the oldest buildings in the village.  It was of architectural merit but sadly was pulled down in the late 1950s.  Perhaps this was the picturesque thatched cottage that housed the original school in the 1830s.  Dorothy Fells lived there when she arrived in the village in the early 1940s.  She subsequently moved to Thistledowney which she had built on open land on the opposite side of the road.  The cottage was then occupied by her maiden aunts, the Misses Cox, until their deaths in 1957 and 1958.
Post Office
The end house of a row of three thatched cottages is now known as the Old Post Office.  The first record of postal activity that has been found is a mention in 1891 of a wall letterbox that was cleared at 5.10pm on weekdays only.  The sub post office was opened and issued with its own rubber stamp in 1910 and closed in September 1983.  In 1911 Mrs Bertha Whitehead (née Aris, a surname that occurs in Water Stratford records in the 17th Century and is still prominent in Tingewick and Buckingham today) aged 26 is listed as sub-postmistress.  She was the wife of Myron Whitehead, grandson of long-time village residents, James and Emma Whitehead.  Letters arrived via Buckingham at 7.35am and 1.35pm and were dispatched at 1.25pm and 5.25pm on weekdays only.  By 1924 the sub-postmistress was Mrs Frances Pearson who lived in the cottage with her husband Walter and younger son William George.  Their elder son, Thomas Walter, is remembered on the village war memorial.  At this time there was a tiny counter inside the house and a postbox on the wall outside.  Mrs Pearson retired in 1954 after over 30 years' service and died in March 1957.
When a Mrs Williams took over she expanded the shop and sold 'almost anything from fishing tackle to Rodwell's lemonade and American soda - a treat for the local boys in the 1950s'.  In the 1960s Mrs Weir from Paddington was sub-postmistress and became a feature of village life.  At Christmas the postman would bring all the cards to her and she would personally take them to each house, knocking on the door and delivering them by hand.  She was a small lady with grey hair and someone who was a child in her time remembers buying penny sweets from her and eating them with her schoolfriends by the river bridge.  Access to the shop and post office was via a side alley to a room at the back.  The post office closed in 1983 but there was still a postbox and public telephone outside the house until May 2017 when BT saw fit to remove the telephone.
This field is the other side of the river from Water Stratford and therefore actually in Tingewick parish, but it played an important part in the story of John Mason.  Between autumn 1693 and Easter 1694, hundreds of people sold their possessions and moved to the village, where they occupied the rectory, local houses and barns, and tents on the field that they called Mount Pleasant or Beersheba.  In more recent times, until about 1960, there was a roadside stone cottage of the same name on the site, where Thomas Ridgway, a gamekeeper and woodman, and his wife had thirteen children between 1885 and 1904 and successfully reared all of them to adulthood.  The photograph shows Mrs Ridgway outside the cottage around 1921.  The occupant in 1939 was described as a dairy farmer and the only other building nearby was a small brick cowshed which was only recently demolished.  The field was briefly a 'pick-your-own' strawberry site in the 1990s and now bears several new large barns used for storing hay and straw.

Camp 55
At Water Stratford crossroads, where our Roman road crosses the A422, stands the substantial remains of a WWII prisoner of war camp.  Confusingly it was usually known as Shalstone Camp despite being in our parish and nearer to our village than to Shalstone.  It was opened in 1942, initially for Italian PoWs.  Later, and after the war, it became home to displaced persons from Eastern Europe, especially Yugoslavs, many of whom settled and raised families in this area.  For most, perhaps all, of its existence it was a working camp, its residents working on local farms.  Many of its huts are still  standing and the majority of the site has for many years been used as boarding kennels for cats and dogs.
Bufflers Holt
This hamlet consists of an ancient pub, The Robin Hood, and three houses, and it is its name that generates historical interest.  The word 'Holt' might suggest otters in the nearby tributary of the River Ouse but sadly it is simply a corruption of 'Halt' or 'Hold'.  The more prosaic explanation is that a drovers' road from the north-west (Welsh Lanejoins the A422 at Bufflers Holt and the drovers halted there to slake their beasts' thirst in the ford over the tributary and their own in the pub.  If they also penned the animals there overnight then 'Hold' would be as appropriate as 'Halt'.  Either way 'Bufflers' would be a dialect word for the drovers or their cattle.  The OED gives 'buffle' and 'buffler' as alternatives for buffalo, but the small Welsh Black bullocks being driven seem unlikely to be thought of as such.  Perhaps the drovers were ironically called bufflers because of the smallness of their beasts.


But Sheahan's History of Buckingham of 1862 states: 'Bufflers Holt Hamlet - this place consisted of a roadside public house and four or five cottages ... The name is the corruption of Buffalo's Holt, or Hold, so called by the country folk because the Duke of Buckingham formerly kept some of those animals there'.  One must, however, beware of believing everything such antiquarians say.  While the Temple family did keep water buffalo at one time, the area around The Robin Hood was know as Bufflers' Corner by 1771.  Were buffalo present before that date?  The Temples were certainly not Dukes of Buckingham by then, so Sheahan is at least partially inaccurate, and may be completely wrong.

                                  Thanks to Brian, Chris and Tina and all those whose research and memories have contributed to this page and others.